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Sonographers are diagnostic medical professionals who operate ultrasonic imaging devices to produce diagnostic images, scans, videos, or 3D volumes of anatomy and diagnostic data. Sonography requires specialized education and skills to view, analyze and modify the scan to optimize the information in the image. Because of the high levels of decisional latitude and diagnostic input, sonographers have a high degree of responsibility in the diagnostic process. Many countries require that medical sonographers have professional certification. Sonographers must understand ultrasound physics, cross sectional anatomy, physiology, pathology and communication skills/ They also require highly developed psycho-motor skills that are specific to the profession.

During their careers, sonographers may acquire some form of work-related musculoskeletal injury due to scanning in compromised positions, incorrect gripping of the transducer, spending too much time to manipulate the transducer on technically difficult exams such as obese or large pregnant patients and a lack of upper body fitness.